Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes. It includes two groups of parasitic flatworms, known as flukes. They are internal parasites of molluscs and vertebrates. Most trematodes have a complex life cycle with at least two hosts Examples of trematode in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Maybe there's a reason another name for a trematode is a fluke. — Sabrina Imbler, The Atlantic, 16 Feb. 2021 Take the trematode preying on the California killifish, a normally secretive bait fish that hangs out in western salt marshes. — Washington Post, 14 Dec. 202 Trematodes of dogs and cats have indirect life cycles that require one or two intermediate hosts to reach the infective stage. A representative trematode life cycle is that of P. kellicotti. Dogs and cats infected with adult P. kellicotti shed eggs in their feces. The eggs hatch in water, and a ciliated form, the miracidium, emerges Trematode eggs usually have a smooth, hard, transparent, yellow - brown shell and eggs may have shoulders and/or spines. Size varies greatly with species, ranging from less than 30 microns to nearly 175 microns. Most have an operculum (escape hatch for the miracidium)

Flukes are parasitic flatworms that infect the blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, or liver. They are often categorized according to the principle organ system they invade: Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola hepatica, and Opisthorchis species: Liver and bile ducts. Fasciolopsis buski, Heterophyes heterophyes, and related organisms: Lumen. Introduction to Trematodes (Flukes) Flukes are parasitic flatworms that infect the blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, or liver. They are often categorized according to the principle organ system they invade: NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version Foodborne trematodes are zoonotic and become infective only after completing a complex life cycle that involves stages in intermediate, non-human hosts. In all species, the first intermediate host is a freshwater snail Also known as flukes, trematodes are a group of parasitic flatworms (leaf-shaped). Although they are mostly associated with such aquatic fauna as fish and mollusks, they also affect various vertebrates as part of their indirect life cycle

Trematodes are parasitic flatworms of the class Trematoda, specifically parasitic flukes with two suckers: one ventral and the other oral. Trematodes are covered by a tegument, that protects the organism from the environment by providing secretory and absorptive functions. The life cycle of a typical trematode begins with an egg trematode: [ flo̳k ] an organism of the class trematoda , characterized by a body that is usually flat and often leaflike; flukes can infect the blood, liver, intestines, and lungs. Called also trematode . Flukes are not common in the United States but are a serious problem in many Asian, tropical, and subtropical countries. The Chinese liver. Unlike monogeneans, trematodes have no opisthoaptor; instead, they are characterized by one or two suckers. They are like turbellarians in having a relatively well developed alimentary canal, and their muscular, excretory, and reproductive systems are also relatively complete Trematodes (flukes) include parasitic flatworms belonging to the phylum Platyhelminthes, class Trematoda, and subclasses Aspidogastrea (two orders, four families) and Digenea (ten orders, more than seventy-two families) Browse 151 trematode stock photos and images available, or search for turbellaria or tapeworm to find more great stock photos and pictures. Shown is a close up of a Trematode cercariae, the infective stage that attacks amphibians. A study by Penn State researchers, published in the July..

Foodborne trematode (FBT) infections, taeniasis and cysticercosis are noteworthy neglected tropical diseases caused by trematodes (flatworms or flukes) or pork tapeworms. People become infected through the consumption of raw or poorly cooked freshwater fish, crustaceans and vegetables hat harbour the parasite larvae trematode [ trĕm ′ə-tōd′ ] Any of numerous parasitic flatworms of the class Trematoda, having a thick outer cuticle and one or more suckers or hooks for attaching to host tissue. Flatworms include both external and internal parasites of animal hosts, and some cause diseases of humans in tropical regions, such as schistosomiasis

Trematoda - Wikipedi

Trematode flatworms have complex life stages that involve multiple hosts. In this video I'm looking at the life stage that takes place inside snails.There ar.. Define trematode. trematode synonyms, trematode pronunciation, trematode translation, English dictionary definition of trematode. n. Any of numerous flatworms of the class Trematoda, including both external and internal parasites of animal hosts, that have a thick outer cuticle and one.. What does trematode mean? Any of numerous flatworms of the class Trematoda, including both external and internal parasites of animal hosts, that h..

Trematodes are unsegmented flatworms of Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Digenea, Family Heterophyidae. There are many species of trematodes, and they can be seen commonly on the outside of fish as black spots, they can appear also as small white, yellow or black spots in both skin, fins and meat of fish. The spots are the immature stage (metacercaria) of the parasite, whic All trematodes are parasitic, and most adult trematodes parasitize vertebrates. Around 9000 species have been described. Their body is covered with a tegument, a peculiar kind of epidermal arrangement in which the main cell bodies are deep, separated from the cytoplasm that lies next to the exterior by a layer of muscle (but connected to the exterior layer by cellular processes Trematode. Phylum Platyhelminthes; Family Cyathocotylidae. Species unknown, but almost certainly a trematode in the family Cyathocotylidae, the marine species of which have a complex life cycle involving three hosts. It is probably Mesostephanus appendiculatus, which uses the California Horn Snail, Cerithidea californica as its first.

Infection with Metagonimus yokogawai, a related trematode, has been reported after eating raw or undercooked freshwater or brackish fish in the Far East, Siberia, Manchuria, the Balkan states, Israel, and Spain trematode ( plural trematodes ) ( zoology) a parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda quotations . 1979, Cormac McCarthy, Suttree, Random House, page 119: He passed under the last of the bridges and around the bend in the river, through peaceful farmland, high fields tilted on the slopes and rich turned earth in patches of black corrugation.

Trematode Definition of Trematode by Merriam-Webste

Companion Animal Parasite Council Trematode

Fasciola hepatica - Wikipedia

XXX.—Note on the excretory system of the Trematode genus Maritrema Nicoll, 1907, and the systematic position of the Microphallinæ Ward, 1901. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Vol. 19, Issue. 111, p. 355 The trematode parasite community had the fifth highest dry biomass density among stream organisms (0.40 g/m 2) and exceeded the combined biomass of aquatic insects. Only host snails (3.88 g/m 2), sculpin (1.11 g/m 2), trout (0.73 g/m 2) and crayfish (0.43 g/m 2) had a greater biomass. The parasite 'extended phenotype', consisting of. Browse 668 trematode stock photos and images available, or search for turbellaria or tapeworm to find more great stock photos and pictures. Humpback whale silhouette Humpback whale swimming, full side view, tail down, silhouette illustration. High resolution transparent PNG also included Trematode parasites are ubiquitous in marine environments and their importance in ecological function is becoming increasingly recognized, impacting host behaviors, food web dynamics, and community diversity. Trematodes are inextricably tied to their hosts. Therefore, to understand the role of trematodes it is essential to understand their relationships with their hosts

Encysted Trematode Metacercariae I. parasitizing the Atlantic and Gulf coast Causative Agent and Disease blue crab that often itself is parasitized Trematodes or flukes are members of the phylum Platyhelminthes and the class Trematoda. Adult worms of the subclass Digenea are endoparasites occurring in all classes of vertebrates and use inverte Using Parasitic Trematode Larvae to Quantify an Elusive Vertebrate Host. Creators. James E BYERS - Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States. Irit ALTMAN - Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 46 College Road, Durham, NH 03824, United States. Andrew M GROSSE - Warnell School of. Trematode. The Trematodes are a class of flatworms in the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are called flukes, and are internal parasites of molluscs and vertebrates. Most trematodes have a complex life cycle with at least two hosts. The primary host, where the flukes sexually reproduce, is a vertebrate. The intermediate host, which is the agent of. Trematode Infections: Disease Bioinformatics Research of Trematode Infections has been linked to Infective Disorder, Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Fish Diseases, Schistosomiasis, Nematode Infections. The study of Trematode Infections has been mentioned in research publications which can be found using our bioinformatics tool below

The trematode diversity was highest in Lymnaea stagnalis (10 species), Radix balthica (10 species) and Stagnicola palustris (7 species); these results correspond partly to those of a previous study conducted by Selbach et al. showing that snails within the genera Radix (Lymnaeidae) and Gyraulus (Planorbidae) accounted for almost 90% of the. trematode - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free Foodborne trematode infections generally cause chronic diseases with a variety of signs, symptoms, and pathological consequences depending on the fluke species. Foodborne trematode infections are. PMID: 21117922. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam. Phan VT, Ersbøll AK, Nguyen KV, Madsen H, Dalsgaard A. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Jul 13;4 (7):e742. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000742. PMID: 20644617 Free PMC Article TREMATODE TRANSMISSION PATTERNS Wesley L. Shoop Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, Rahway, New Jersey 07065-0900 ABSTRACT: The primitive transmission pattern in the Trematoda is a 1-host pattern in which an aspidocotylean matures in a mollusc. The progeny from the parent aspidocotylean typically disseminate from the mollusc t

Cause : Trematode infections include Alaria alata, Heterobilharzia Americana, Nanophyetus salmincola, and Paragonimus kellicotti. May also be infected by Fasciola hepatica but this is rare in cats and dogs. Signs : Heterobilharzia Americana infection can lead to vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss and renal failure Advances in Trematode Biology presents a thorough treatment of modern trematodology, including principles and practices. With coverage of background material as well as modern methods, Advances in Trematode Biology updates researchers, practitioners, and students with new information in immunology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology FROG DECLINES > The cysts formed by the trematode lead to abnormal limb development in California frogs; whether trematodes cause the deformities elsewhere remains to be seen It was a disturbing sign that something might be going terribly wrong in the environment: Frogs with extra legs, missing limbs, and twisted jaws were popping up in ponds across the country adult trematode, which lives in the gastrointestinal tract of the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), releases eggs that are then deposited into ponds when the birds defecate. The eggs hatch to produce miracidia that infest the first intermediate host, the ram's horn snail (Helisoma sp., Fig. 2). The miracidia mature in th An outbreak of trematode-induced granulomas of the conjunctiva. Rathinam S (1), Fritsche TR, Srinivasan M, Vijayalakshmi P, Read RW, Gautom R, Namperumalsamy P, Rao NA. (1)Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India. Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA

Principles of Parasitism: Digenea

Snail vector of trematode. 1. Welcome to My Presentation The spiral in a snail's shell is the same mathematically as the spiral in the Milky Way galaxy, and It's also the same mathematically as the spirals in our DNA. It's the same ratio that you will find in very basic music that transcends cultures all over the world. trematode relationships have been described Five species of snails shedded cercariae. by many malacologists. The attraction of mira- Two types and five species of trematodes were cidia to a specific mollusc is influenced by categorized

  1. The causes of amphibian deformities and their role in widespread amphibian declines remain conjectural. Severe limb abnormalities were induced at high frequencies in Pacific treefrogs ( Hyla regilla ) exposed to cercariae of a trematode parasite ( Ribeiroia sp.). The abnormalities closely matched those observed at field sites, and an increase in parasite density caused an increase in.
  2. Click Get Books and find your favorite books in the online library. Create free account to access unlimited books, fast download and ads free! We cannot guarantee that Index Catalogue Of Medical And Veterinary Zoology Subjects Trematoda And Trematode Diseases C book is in the library. READ as many books as you like (Personal use)
  3. ated with the larval stages, eggs or proglottids of the parasite
  4. The digenetic trematode, Proctoeces lintoni, is a parasite of the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the Chilean Pacific coastline. Although this species is relatively well known, the first intermediate host has not yet been described. In the presen

Video: Introduction to Trematodes (Flukes) - Infectious Diseases

WHO | Foodborne trematode infections

Foodborne trematode infections - World Health Organizatio

  1. There are no multiplicative larval stages in the mollusc host, as known from all digenean trematodes. Furthermore, host specificity of most aspidogastreans is very low, i.e., they infect a wide range of hosts, whereas a typical digenean trematode is restricted to few species (at least of molluscs)
  2. F buski is the largest intestinal trematode, measuring 2-8 cm long by 1-2 cm wide, while the smallest intestinal trematodes are H heterophyes and M yokogawai, measuring less than 0.5 mm. Similarly, the eggs of Clonorchis, Heterophyes, Metagonimus, and Opisthorchis species are also morphologically similar and indistinguishable
  3. e if there was a downstream gradient of trematode prevalence and diversity, which could result from continuous stream flow moving free-living parasite stages and infected hosts downstream
  4. How to pronounce - trematode
  5. Browse 50 trematode stock illustrations and vector graphics available royalty-free, or search for turbellaria or tapeworm to find more great stock images and vector art. humpback whale silhouette - trematode stock illustrations. illustration of a schistosoma - trematode stock illustrations. killer whale mascot - trematode stock illustrations
  6. Synonyms for trematode in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for trematode. 2 synonyms for trematode: trematode worm, fluke. What are synonyms for trematode
  7. First, trematode infracommunities are not very complex, in fact, they are rather depauperate. Second, the maximum size of a trematode infracommunity is four species. According to a recent review by Esch et al. (2001) , quadruple infections in a single snail have been seen just three times in the hundreds of thousands of snails that have been.

Presumed trematode-induced granulomatous anterior uveitis (PTGAU) is a relatively common anterior uveitis among paediatric patients from rural Egypt. It has been linked to swimming or bathing in the Nile river and freshwater canals.1 2 It is characterised by chronic granulomatous iridocyclitis with one or more pearl-like nodules (pearl tumour. The redia will feed on snail tissue or sometimes are predatory on other trematode stages present in snails. Occasionally there is a second generation of rediae. In all cases the final stage produced in the snail is a stage called a cercaria (plural cercariae). This is a stage that has a body that looks something like the adult and typically has.

Liver fluke, a trematode liver parasite - helminth (Fasciola spp.) Mouth and pharynx of the adult liver fluke. Humans are infected by ingestion of uncooked aquatic vegetation on which the metacercariae stage is encysted. Metacercariae excyst in the duodenum and migrate through the intestinal wall in to the peritoneal cavity Trematode & Snail. A trematode is a parasitic worm that can be found in almost every fish, bird and turtle near the Great Barrier Reef. When a trematode hosts on a snail, it affects the snail's reproduction for life. The snail looks and behaves normally but instead of reproducing snails, it reproduces parasites instead Trematode. Trematodes are flattened oval or worm-like animals, usually no more than a few centimetres in length, although species as small as 1 millimetre (0.039 in) ( Monogenea) and as large as 7 centimetres (2.8 in) ( Fasciolopsis) are known. Their most distinctive external feature is the presence of two suckers, one close to the mouth, and.

Trematoda - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Montana Field Guide contains a wealth of information about Montana's diverse species
  2. Among the small trematode egg-positive animals, 27 dogs, 18 cats, and 5 pigs were randomly selected for necropsy and adult worm recovery from the liver and small intestine. The animals were housed and handled in accordance with national standards of experimental animal care
  3. Trematode genomics. Trematode.Net v1.0 provides easy access to information and other tools for analyzing trematode sequences
  4. Parasitic worms have armies, and produce more soldiers when needed. In estuaries around the world, tiny trematode worms take over the bodies of aquatic snails. These parasitic flatworms invade the.
  5. Praziquantel for Flukes Written by Dr Erik Johnson Praziquantel - (branded Droncit/Prazi/Prazipro) What it is: Praziquantel is a bitter tasting powder which shows good absorption directly from the treated water, and then admirable clearance of various surface and internal flukes (trematodes) and internal worms in fish
  6. Detritive Trematode is a common damage item which takes effect on hitting enemies who are below 3% of their maximum health, giving them the disease debuff which hurts them for a small fraction of their health every second for 7 seconds. 1 Tactics 2 Synergies 3 Trivia 4 Gallery Stacking Detritive Trematodes can result in enemies getting the disease debuff as soon as they reach 40% of their.

Trematodes - What are they?, Classification, Morphology

Feeding: Trematode required which type of enzyme is depended upon which type of food is being ingest by trematode.Some trematode lives in the host intestine where they attach on surface epithelium and absorb host digested food in this case, they don't need to digest it properly because it is already digest and they easily absorb this food. on the other hand, there are some other parasites. noun. A parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda. 'All trematodes are parasitic, and most adult trematodes parasitize vertebrates.'. 'There are a few parasites of the black crappie, which include many protozoa, trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes.'. 'For example, crickets infected with bacteria, Drosophila infested with mites, and. Fascioliasis is infection with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, which is acquired by eating contaminated watercress or other water plants. Flukes are parasitic flatworms that infect various parts of the body (eg, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, liver) depending on the species. F. hepatica is the sheep and cattle liver fluke Parasitic worms have armies, and produce more soldiers when needed. In parasitic trematode worm species, small members of the colony known as soldiers (left) are poised to attack any invading. Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students.ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts

Trematode life cycle stages - Wikipedi

  1. trematode abundanc ane d diversit ay t sites (revealed through multiple regression analysis) were of physical and chemical origi n including sedimen nitrogent roads, , trace metals and the distance of sites from the ocean. The results are explored in the context o
  2. ated by cercariae. S mansoni. Humans, occasionally baboons and rodents. Freshwater snails (genus Biomphalaria) Absent. Penetration of skin by cercariae. S japonicu
  3. As nouns the difference between trematode and cestode is that trematode is any of several parasitic flatworms, of the class trematoda , that have external suckers while cestode is any of various parasitic tapeworms of the class cestoda . As an adjective cestode is of or characteristic of such creatures
Lake sturgeon have genes from parasite, signs of human STD

Trematode definition of trematode by Medical dictionar

Several trematode species utilize freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The transmission stage of trematodes from the snail host to their next intermediate or final host involves cercarial and metacercarial stages. Thus, it is important to survey trematode infections in species of freshwater snails in human and/or animal endemic regions Heterobilharzia americana is a trematode parasite endemic to the Gulf Coast region of Texas. The adults are blood parasites and live in the mesenteric veins where mating occurs. The female produces thousands of ova that lodge in the enteric venules, secrete proteolytic enzymes and eventually gain access to the lumen of the small intestine Between June 2012 and July 2013, 43 slender madtoms (Noturus exilis) and 21 Black River madtoms (Noturus maydeni) were collected from 4 counties of northern Arkansas and examined for helminths. Eleven (26%) slender madtoms were infected with digenean trematodes, including 3 (7%) with metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum minimum, 3 (7%) with Alloglossidium sp., and 7 (16%) with Plagioporus sp.; a.


Samples with trematode prevalence values of Abra segmentum greater than and less than the 95% CI are indicated in red and blue, respectively. Note how the samples of either exceptionally low or. trematode: Any of numerous flatworms of the class Trematoda, including both external and internal parasites of animal hosts, that have a thick outer cuticle and one or more suckers or hooks for attaching to host tissue Abstract. Digenetic trematodes infecting humans are more than 91 species which belong to 46 genera all over the world. According to their habitat in definitive hosts, they are classified as blood flukes ( Schistosoma japonicum

Trematodes - Encyclopedia of Arkansa

Zoonotic trematode infections are an area of the neglected tropical diseases that have become of major interest to global and public health due to their associated morbidity. Human fascioliasis is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and over 180 million are at risk of infection in both developed and underdeveloped countries Trematode communities often consist of different species exploiting the same host population, with two or more trematodes sometimes co-occuring in the same host. A commonly used diagnostic method to detect larval trematode infections in snails has been based on cercarial shedding, though it is often criticized as inaccurate. In the present study we compare infection prevalences determined by. A comparative and seasonal study was performed on trematode populations and communities within waterfowl definitive hosts in order to determine important factors in the structuring of these communities. Furthermore, larval trematode populations were also sampled in order to compare larval stages found within snail hosts to adult stages found within collected waterfowl in order to determine. The first part presents basic information about foodborne trematode infections, their modes of transmission, and the methods available for control. Also included is the first detailed analysis of the geographical distribution of foodborne trematode infections. The second part provides a state-of-the-art review of what is known about the. Trematode anthelmintics. Praziquantel is the most effective drug in treating infections caused by intestinal, liver, and lung flukes and is the drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis (infections of blood flukes). Praziquantal causes contraction and spastic paralysis of the worm and also damages the membranes of the worm, which.


Trematode Photos and Premium High Res Pictures - Getty Image

trematode species than other birds used during community analysis (blue-winged teal and lesser scaup). When adult trematode communities were compared to larval trematode communities that were sampled, 2 trematode species (Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus) appeared to have the ability to represent a Polyester microplastic fibers did not alter trematode survival, nor did their ingestion by amphibians increase amphibian susceptibility to infection. However, when amphibians and trematodes were exposed simultaneously to the fibers, the infection success of the parasite was reduced All trematode eggs with sizes of less than 50 μm were considered small trematode eggs. All the discovered eggs were recorded and the intensity of small trematode infection was categorized as light (< 1.000 eggs per gram (EPG)), moderate (1.000-10.000 EPG), or heavy infection (>10.000 EPG) . One part of each positive sample was diluted in.

Foodborne trematode infections in Western Pacifi

Pan-trematode, pan-cestode and pan-nematode primers and probes design To design primers for the detection of clinically important helminths, 16 trematode 28S rRNA gene sequences, 24 cestode cox1 gene sequences and 33 nematode cox1 gene sequences from diverse hosts were downloaded from GenBank ( figure 1 ). 3 Multiple alignments of these GenBank. PDF | On Jul 15, 2021, S.L.Choubisa published Mode of nutrition in pathogenic trematode larvae (redia and cercaria) which infect hepatopancreas of fresh water snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). | Find.

No trematode infection was found in dreissenids from Eighteen Mile Creek or in the Finger Lakes, with the exception of 2 echinostomatid metacercariae found in zebra mussels in Lake Owasco and 2 unidentified metacercariae found in quagga mussels from Lake Cayuga: one in July 2009 and another in July 2010 Changes in trematode assemblages associated with the Eurasian coot Fulica atra and the black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus from central European fishponds.a-b Rarefaction curves, c-d trematode species-specific prevalence, and e-f trematode species-specific intensities of infection (± SE) compared based on the materials collected in the 1960s and 2010s

The apparently rapid increase in the prevalence of amphibian limb deformities has led to substantial interest from ecologists and public health professionals. Hypotheses proposed to explain the deformities fall into two broad categories: chemical contaminants and trematode infection. Although there are convincing experimental demonstrations that certain factors can lead to some deformities. Dicrocoeliosis is a trematode infection in cattle, sheep and goats caused by the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium spp. Though endemic in Ghana, its disease situation is poorly understood. In the present study, the prevalence, distribution and worm load of Dicrocoelium spp. in cattle at slaughter in Wa were determined The present report represents the first study on the diversity of larval trematode parasites (cercariae) of the freshwater snails in the Gharb area (Morocco). Five morphologically distinguishable types of trematode cercariae were observed in three freshwater snail species with 12% the average prevalence rate in snail hosts Monomeric hemoglobin from the trematode Paramphistomum epiclitum displays very high oxygen affinity (P(50). 0.001 mm Hg) and an unusual heme distal site containing tyrosyl residues at the B10 and E7 positions. The crystal structure of aquo-met P. epiclitum hemoglobin, solved at 1.17 A resolution via multiwavelength anomalous dispersion techniques (R-factor=0.121), shows that the heme distal. trematode: see fluke fluke, parasitic flatworm of the trematoda class, related to the tapeworm. Instead of the cilia, external sense organs, and epidermis of the free-living flatworms, adult flukes have sucking disks with which they cling to their hosts and an external cuticle that resists digestio

Fluke: Trematoda - Cardiovascular